In order to test the effects that temperature fluctuations have on population dynamics, we used the species . Roots are photosynthetically active having chloroplast in it. Maximum growth is found with nitrate plus hydrolyzed casein. Seasonal changes in the growth rate of duckweeds—Lemna minor L. andL. The details of material used, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t003. Seasonal changes in the growth rate of duckweeds—Lemna minor L. andL. Study provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field scale research on leachate treatment by duckweed. Formal analysis, Lemna minor: University of Toronto Culture Collection (UTCC) 490 Footnote 13 and 492 Footnote 14. 0000014748 00000 n <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(�� \n h t t p s : / / d i g i t a l c o m m o n s . In synthetic leachate a maximum growth rate of 7.03 ± 1.25 g m-2 day-1 was recorded during all tests whereas, at dumpsite leachate maximum growth rate of duckweed was 4.87 g m-2 day-1. <>stream Phosphorous uptake of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by Lemna minor is also reported when grown on swine wastewater [12]. (��~�źl�]U�O��?b�����������`�%@c�s���6�I���ҭW�Fyy��vu�^]�xe A wide range of physical, chemical, biological and combination of two or more methods of leachate treatments are being practiced worldwide [3, 9]. 0000014931 00000 n Duckweed grows on water with relatively hi… startxref Lemna minor has variable growth rates under varying climatic conditions. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Furthermore, it is to note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study. Absorption of nitrogen by duckweed largely depends on the initial nitrogen concentration in growth media, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), hydraulic retention time and duckweed plant density [36]. endobj trailer At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Synthetic leachate with COD about 1527±2.42 mgL-1 (approximately equal to the COD of dumpsite leachate) was prepared by adding the measured quantities of NaNO3, K2HPO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, NaHCO3, MgCl2.6H2O, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 and glucose powder in distilled water. Yes Results reveal that compared to synthetic leachate under artificial conditions, duckweed removes COD and nutrients more efficiently from dumpsite leachate. Lemna minuta is considered invasive in several European countries, where it can occur in the same habitat as invasive Azolla filiculoides and native Lemna minor. Despite highly significant relationships between the growth rate of L. minor and concentrations of dissolved nutrients, each of the regressions alone explained a relatively small percentage of growth rate variability ( R 2 = 0.13, 0.21 and 0.17 for the respective regressions of L. minor growth rate on N-NO 3 , N-NH 4 and … Duckweed grows on still or slow moving bodies of water and only needs water, sunlight, and nutrients to grow. 224 0 obj In experiment 1, L. minor was harvested 6, 5, 4, and 3 times in OM, IF, 2x OM, and 2x OM+IF, respectively, during 30 days of culture period. All experiments during this study were conducted within the premises of Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan where I am pursuing my doctoral degree (33° 38′ 41″ N, 72° 59′ 22″ E). 0000002506 00000 n Landolt clones 8434 and 7730 are recommended for use in this test.Footnote 6 A general description of L. minor and features that distinguish it from similar species are provided in Appendix E. The test culture, comprised of plants isolated exclusively for obtaining test organisms, must be axenic and must be used to inoculate all vessels used in a given test.Footnote 7 Inocula from these cultures m… In order to further explore this, we parameterized a model of the growth rate of Lemna minor at constant temperatures and made … endobj 4 0. PLoS ONE 14(8): <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 217 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> Usual maximum size in aquariums: 0 - 2 cm (0 - 0.79 inch) 0 14. Freshwater duckweed, comprising the smallest, fastest growing and simplest macrophytes has various applications in agriculture, phytoremediation and energy production. Family: Araceae. Citation: Iqbal J, Javed A, Baig MA (2019) Growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (lemna minor) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate under artificial and natural conditions. Grown in swine lagoon diluted water, L. minor accumulates 10.6% starch of total dry weight. The plants were grown on a liquid medium based on Smart and Barko (1985) , optimised for Lemnacea by Szabo et al. There are strong theoretical reasons that support the idea that environmental fluctuations matter when studying ecological systems. Pollution caused by leachate is a potential threat to the environment and human health [5]. Duckweed may have no root or one or more simple roots. 229 0 obj It is evident from the comparison of mass balance that duckweed absorbed larger amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous into its biomass from synthetic leachate as compared to the absorption of these nutrients from dumpsite leachate under similar conditions (Fig 2). Duckweed has tiny, green leaves that float on the surface of the water or just below it, the plant is flowering but the blooms are inconsequential.Duckweed is one of the smallest flowering plants in the world! Lemna minor (common duckweed) is widely used as an indicator organism in environmental risk assessments. Lemna Minor AKA Duckweed. 4 0. No, Is the Subject Area "Fronds" applicable to this article? 2 0. In order to test the effects that temperature fluctuations have on population dynamics, we used the species . [228 0 R 229 0 R 230 0 R 231 0 R 232 0 R 233 0 R 234 0 R] Seasonal growth of duckweed ranges from 3 to 9.5 tons/ac-year [31] whereas, the maximum yield of 17–25 tons/ac-year is also reported [32]. Nitrogen is fixed as protein in duckweed biomass [20]. The influence of different light intensities on frond growth 43 4.4. During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 ml plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. While TKN and TP removal of 152 to 175 mg m-2 day -1 and 84 to 92 mg m-2 day -1 respectively by Lemna minor from dumpsite leachate under natural conditions have also been reported [34]. 0000016951 00000 n Is the Subject Area "Chemical oxygen demand" applicable to this article? The results showed that duckweed grown in the presence of a screen exhibited a lower per capita growth rate than duckweed grown in the absence of a … If Lemna is placed on water, there is a reduction in the rate constants of synthesis of protein and an increase (3- to 6-fold) in the rate constant of degradation. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. 230 0 obj 221: Lemna sp. e d u / e n v s t u d t h e s e s)/Rect[230.8867 218.7641 439.5537 230.4828]/StructParent 5/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 234 0 obj A substantial number of Lemnaceae are invasive outside their natural distribution area. 2 mg/L was considered as the threshold toxicity in Lemna minor under conditions indicated above. Nitrate and ammonium are the main forms of available nitrogen for duckweed however, the absorption of ammonium is 3 to 11 times greater than nitrates. Maximum growth is found with nitrate plus hydrolyzed casein. The high growth rate of duckweed was also observed at synthetic leachate. Growth and photosynthesis of Lemna minor L. exposed to different light conditions and sucrose supplies @ELJKAVIDAKOVI]-CIFREK1, SONJASORI]2,MARIJABABI]1* ... growth rate in comparison to that obtained in plants exposed to CW light (Fig. <>stream Many synthetic mixtures of amino acids are unable to support growth. The control of protein turnover in Lemna minor has been examined using a method described in the previous paper for determining the rate constants of synthesis and degradation of protein. 235 0 obj No, Is the Subject Area "Algae" applicable to this article? behaviour of the alien macrophyte Lemna minuta in comparison with the native Lemna minor: the functional response (FR) and relative growth rate (RGR), supplemented with a combined biomass-based nutrient removal (BBNR). Duckweed is amongst the promising aquatic plants having enormous capacity to treat eutrophicated wastewaters. No, Is the Subject Area "Nitrification" applicable to this article? Abstract. Fig 1 shows the schematic setup used for leachate production. growth rate at constant temperatures, we then tested the growth rate in fluctuating temperatures in order to evaluate the importance of Jensen’s inequality in a real population. Waste was collected from pre-determined lowest points at depths of 0.5 m to 1.5 m [28]. Department of Environment and Energy Management, College of Business Management, Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, Affiliation Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. endobj 5 Threshold toxicity 4 Growth index (-) 3 2 Minimal growth 1 0 0 0. The results showed that copper inhibited Lemna growth at concentrations ≥ 0.3 mg/L. High rates of nitrification and denitrification processes resulted by large population of respective bacteria may remove large amounts of nitrogen from dumpsite leachate. 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